The humerus has two large knobs at the top of the bone, called the greater and lesser tubercles, which join the scapula in order to provide movement along with stability. Humerus Parts of The Humerus Bone. Located on the lateral side of the proximal humerus is an expanded bony area called the greater tubercle. Kenhub. It consists of a proximal end, a shaft and a distal end, all which contain important anatomical landmarks. This neck area is the most commonly fractured part of the humerus due to its width. The humerus is a long bone forming the skeleton of the upper arm. The lateral aspect also contains multiple vascular foramina. The lateral portion of the brachialis muscle originates from the distal part of this surface, as well as from the proximla two third of the lateral supracondylar ridge. It articulates with the head of the radius. In the anatomical position, the head faces in a medial, superior and posterior direction where it articulates with the glenoid fossa of the scapula. It is most commonly seen in the middle-aged and in the elderly. Also, the transverse ligament of the shoulder attaches here. The margin of the smooth area of the head is the anatomical neck of the humerus. When the elbow is in the extended position, the posterior and inferior aspects of the trochlea are in contact with the ulna. All of these parts have important anatomical landmarks. Reading time: 13 minutes. The posterior surface is bounded by the medial and lateral borders and is covered mostly by the medial head of the triceps brachii muscle. It articulates with both the ulna and radius and consists of a medial trochlea and a lateral capitulum, which are separated by a faint groove. Pearl 1: fine tuning of plate position If the first screw is inserted only loosely in the center of the elongated hole, fine-tuning of the plate position is still possible. The humerus is the longest and largest bone of the upper limb. The joint capsule of the shoulder joint attaches here. Differentiate between the trochlea and capitulum at the elbow joint very easily using this mnemonic! This part of the humerus articulates with both ulna and radius. However, when the elbow is flexed the posterior part is no longer in contact, as the trochlear notch slides towards the anterior aspect of the humerus. Infratubercular 4. The anatomical neck of the humerus is a narrowing below the articular surface of the head. The pull of the deltoid muscle causes the proximal fragment to displace laterally. The tendon of the pectoralis major muscle attaches on to the lateral lip (a.k.a. There is a deep groove separating the two tubercles, which is called the intertubercular sulcus. The proximal end of the anterior border is continuous with the lateral lip of the intertubercular sulcus. The shaft also contains three surfaces referred to as the anterolateral, anteromedial and posterior surfaces. 2020 Copyright © The medial border is similar to the lateral border in that it forms the medial supracondylar ridge distally. It provides attachment for the coracobrachialis muscle around its mid-portion, while the distal half of the surface is largely covered by the medial portion of the brachialis muscle. However, it can also be obtained in a supine position. Lateral to the coronoid fossa and superior to the capitulum of the humerus is another hallow area called the radial fossa—the margin of the head of the radius lodges into this fossa upon full elbow flexion. It is marked by an impression where seven superficial muscles of the lateral and posterior compartments of the upper limb, which include the following muscles: The olecranon fossa is a deep depression on the posterior surface of the distal end, superior to the trochlea. It consists of three borders known as the anterior, lateral and medial borders. The axillary nerve and the posterior circumflex humeral artery lie close to the bone here. The anterior border begins at the greater tubercle and runs downward almost to the end of the bone. The lateral border of the humerus ends at the lateral epicondyle. crest of greater tubercle), while the teres major tendon attaches on to the medial lip. This is usually due to the force of a fall on the hand. In extension, the inferior surface is in contact with the radius but in the flexed position the radial head slides towards the anterior aspect of the humerus. The humerus is the long bone of your upper arm. It consists of three smooth and flat impressions at the posterosuperior aspect for the attachment of muscles. Movement of the humerus is essential to all of the varied activities of the arm, such as throwing, lifting, and writing. Fractures of the humerus are relatively common and can occur at any location on the humerus. The humerus is a long bone (Based on the types of bones). Lateral to the coronoid fossa and superior to the capitulum is another depression referred to as the radial fossa. The anatomical neck separates the greater and lesser tuberosities from the humeral head. The AP view of the humerus is part of the humerus series and is usually taken in standing position. It articulates with the ulna at the trochlear notch. The trochlea is a projection that is shaped like a pulley and located medially, extending onto the posterior aspect of the humerus. At the proximal end, most fractures are located at the surgical neck and are most common in the elderly, especially those with osteoporosis. Their incidence is increasing with the aging of the population. The radial groove is a shallow groove that interrupts the medial border in its medial third. How well do you know the other 205 bones in the body? These include the: The olecranon fossa is a deep hollowed area on the posterior surface, superior to the trochlea. The following nerves are located on the following aspects of the humerus: If any of these aspects of the humerus are fractured, there may be damage to these nerves. Anteroposterior locking screws placed into the proximal humerus endanger the axillary nerve because it lies directly over the posterior cortex as little as 0.7 cm from the surgical neck. ... Humerus - Humerus. It gives attachment to the capsular ligament of the shoulder joint except at the upper inferior-medial aspects The radial nerve and deep brachial artery are located in this groove. (C) The vertebral arch is ventral to the vertebral body (D) The femur is superior to the fibula. Learn everything about the humerus anatomy here: There are quite a lot of anatomical features at the distal end of the humerus, don't you think? Multiple vascular foramina also mark the lateral aspect of the greater tubercle. The shaft or body is the middle part of the humerus, and it gives attachment to several muscles. The humerus articulates with the scapula proximally at the glenohumeral joint so it participates in the movements of the shoulder. Read more. Here, the joint capsule of the shoulder joint is attached. Learn anatomy humerus with free interactive flashcards. The medial epicondyle is a blunt projection that forms the end of the medial border of the humerus. During the extension of the elbow, the tip of the ulnar olecranon process lodges into this fossa. During growth, bone forms at the physeal plate as the child ages. It is a common fracture site. This results in separation of one or both of the condyles from the shaft of the humerus. 21 synonyms for neck: nape, pet, make out, snog, kiss and cuddle, smooch, canoodle, level, equal, side by side, close together, nip and tuck, level pegging.... What are synonyms for anatomic neck of humerus? The head of the humerus has a hemispherical shape and has a smooth articular surface, which is covered by hyaline cartilage. It articulates with the ulna at the trochlear notch. The subscapularis muscle attaches at this tubercle and the transverse ligament of the shoulder also attaches on its lateral part. The smaller lesser tubercle of the humerus is found on the anterior aspect of the humerus. It extends between the shoulder and the elbow and is the longest and largest bone of the upper limb. The radial nerve runs posteriorly around the middle third of the humeral shaft in the spiral groove. The palms are facing forward with the fingers extended, and the thumbs are pointing away from the body. – Charlotte O'Leary BSc, MBChB It is sometimes referred to as the bicipital groove. At the distal end, the humerus articulates with the head of the radius and the trochlear notch of the ulna, forming the elbow joint. In this position, the humeral head is drawn cranially and posteriorly against the glenoid fossa by contraction of the shoulder muscles.7 During the seizure, the anatomical neck of the humerus is pulled towards the rim of the glenoid fossa, becomes impacted and can eventually be fractured.5 Apparently the same mechanism occured in our patient during the seizure. Also, the humerus has distal articulations with the radius and ulna at the elbow joint. The trochlea has a surface shaped like a pulley and covers the anterior, posterior and inferior surfaces of the medial condyle of the humerus. From superior to inferior, the muscles that attach at these impressions are the: Remember the muscles attaching to the greater tubercle of the humerus using the following mnemonic! Read more. In addition, the tendon of lattisimus dorsi attaches to the posterior aspect. These fragments were the articular head, the greater and lesser tuberosities, and the humeral shaft.1,2,122 Kocher’s classification He classified proximal humerus fractures based on anatomical level of fracture 1. Synonyms for anatomic neck of humerus in Free Thesaurus. The articular part is a modified condyle, which consists of a medial trochlea and a lateral capitulum, separated by a faint groove. Here's a mnemonic that can help you out. An intercondylar fracture can occur due to a fall on the elbow whilst it is in flexion. The anatomical neck is a slight narrowing below the articular surface of the head. Register now The bone fragments usually unite easily as the humerus has a well-developed periosteum and is surrounded by muscles. It is located between the elbow joint and the shoulder. The anteromedial surface is located between the anterior and medial borders of the shaft/body, beginning proximally at the floor of the intertubercular sulcus. Learning anatomy is a massive undertaking, and we're here to help you pass with flying colours. The greater tubercle is the most lateral part of the proximal end of the humerus. There is an impression on the lateral and anterior surfaces where the seven muscles of the superficial group of the posterior compartment of the forearm originate. The humerus is a long bone of the upper limb, which extends from the shoulder to the elbow. The proximal end of the humerus consists of a head, an anatomical neck and the greater and lesser tubercles. 10,23-25 On this note, the intrinsic stability by proper reduction of the fracture is essential in order to prevent failure. This article will talk about these aspects in detail, including muscular attachments and anatomical landmarks, followed by an overview of clinical pathology related to the humerus. n. 1. Once the child reaches maturity, the plate closes, usually during puberty. The distal end or extremity of the humerus has both articular and non-articular parts. It consists of a proximal end, a shaft and a distal end, all which contain important anatomical landmarks. The lateral part forms the medial margin of the intertubercular sulcus. Unfortunately, frac… The ulnar nerve passes in a groove on the posterior aspect of the medial epicondyle. An easy way to remember the relation of latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major and teres major muscles as they insert in the intertubercular sulcus is to use the following mnemonic! Three impressions mark it at the upper posterior aspect, all of which serve for the attachment of muscles. Anatomical neck of humerus synonyms, Anatomical neck of humerus pronunciation, Anatomical neck of humerus translation, English dictionary definition of Anatomical neck of humerus. The humerus is the longest and largest bone of the upper extremity that runs from the shoulder to the elbow.. In this study, anatomical plasty or bone resection was performed to restore anatomical morphology in 10 cases of osteoarthritis of the elbow and deformity of the distal end of the humerus. A … The aim of this biomechanical study was to compare the performance of different anatomical plate configurations for fixation of comminuted distal humerus fractures within one system. Supratubercular 2. The medial lip serves as the attachment site for the teres major muscle. The lesser tubercle of the humerus gives attachment to the subscapularis muscle. • “I would honestly say that Kenhub cut my study time in half.” It is composed of three components:... Anatomical Position And Side Determination of The Humerus Bone. Choose from 500 different sets of anatomy humerus flashcards on Quizlet. The deltoid muscle covers the lateral aspect of the greater tubercle, resulting in the normal rounded shape of the shoulder. Attach the plate to the humeral shaft with a bicortical small fragment 3.5 mm screw inserted through the elongated hole. An impact fracture, often the result of a humeral fracture, is where one bone fragment is driven into the spongy bone of another bone fragment. Grounded on academic literature and research, validated by experts, and trusted by more than 1 million users. The coronoid fossa is a smaller depression that is also located superior to the trochlea but on the anterior surface of the humerus. This is where the proximal end of the humerus joins with the long shaft. The intertubercular sulcus is an indentation located between the two tubercles. The coronoid fossa is a smaller hollow that is also located superior to the trochlea, but on the anterior surface. Ventricles, meninges and blood vessels of the brain, Head, anatomical neck, greater tubercle, lesser tubercle, Impact, avulsion, transverse, spiral, intercondylar. Lateral to the trochlea is the capitulum, which is a rounded and convex projection on the distal end of the humerus. The lesser tubercle is found anterior to the anatomical neck and has a smooth, palpable muscular impression. When the greater tubercle is pulled away from the head of the humerus the result in an avulsion fracture. The feet are spaced slightly apart with the toes pointing forward. In the anatomical position, the head faces in a medial, superior, and posterior direction, where it articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula. The shaft of the humerus has three borders and three surfaces. Subtubercular Features and … Many powerful muscles that manipulate the upper arm at the shoulder and the forearm at the elbow are anchored to the humerus. The deltoid inserts into the deltoid tubercle/tuberosity around the middle of the surface. Kim Bengochea, Regis University, Denver, Author: The capitulum is a convex and rounded projection that covers the anterior and inferior surfaces of the lateral condyle of the humerus. Also, the tendon of the latissimus dorsi muscle attaches to its posterior aspect. The humerus is the both the largest bone in the arm and the only bone in the upper arm. The anatomical neck of the humerus is obliquely directed, forming an obtuse angle with the body of the humerus. A fall onto the outstretched hand can also cause a spiral fracture of the shaft of the humerus. Bone resection was performed on the distal end of the humerus using navigation and on the proximal end of the ulna via freehand surgery. The anatomic neck of the humerus refers to the location of the physeal plate during development. It is also known as the bicipital groove. Also, the humerus has distal articulations with the radius and ulna at the elbow joint. Our engaging videos, interactive quizzes, in-depth articles and HD atlas are here to get you top results faster. The proximal region of the humerus articulates with the glenoid fossa of the scapula, forming the glenohu… In 3- and 4-part proximal humerus fractures, outcomes are generally associated with anatomic reduction and fixation of associated tuberosity fractures.11 However, tuberosity fracture fixation can be tenuous given the relatively poor baseline bone quality at this area of the proximal humerus and potential for extensive comminution. Another important landmark is the anatomical neck, a slightly more narrow area just below the tubercles but above the shaft, which is the long part of the bone. It has a smooth proximal surface and is largely covered by the deltoid muscle. The proximal end of the humerus articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula at the glenohumeral joint. Cross-section views reveal that the proximal half of the shaft is circular, while its distal half is triangular and flattened. vet-Anatomy vet-Anatomy the interactive atlas of veterinary anatomy. The medial epicondyle is a blunt projection superomedial to the medial condyle, which forms at the end of the medial border of the humerus. and grab your free ultimate anatomy study guide! During flexion of the elbow, the coronoid process of the ulna lodges into the coronoid fossa. The nature of the elbow joint enables the movements that are limited to the arm and forearm, and cannot be performed within the other parts of the body, such as supination and pronation. The sulcus consists of a lateral lip and a medial lip. The distal end consists of both articular and non-articular parts. Unlike the trochlea, it doesn’t cover the posterior surface. The middle portion of the lateral border is adjacent to the rough V shaped area referred to as the deltoid tubercle/tuberosity. Dimitrios Mytilinaios MD, PhD The proximal humerus may… (A) The humerus is proximal to the scapula. There is also a narrowing below the tubercles referred to as the surgical neck, which is a common fracture site. Here's an easy way to help you remember them! Test your knowledge with our bone quizzes and labeled diagrams. The lateral border begins just distal to the greater tubercle of the humerus. The articular part of the humerus is a modified condyle and is wider transversely. A direct blow to the arm can result in a transverse fracture of the humeral shaft. The long tendon of the biceps brachii and a branch of the ascending circumflex humeral artery lie within the intertubercular sulcus. It is so named as the margin of the head of the radius lodges there in full flexion. The upper extremity consists of a rounded head, a narrow neck, and two short processes (tubercles, sometimes called tuberosities.) The humerus is the long bone in the upper arm. The superficial muscles of the anterior compartment of the forearm originate from the anterior surface of the medial epicondyle. It represents the fused epiphyseal plate. After dissection, the rotator cuff pathology was documented. Here, the proximal extremity ends and continues as the shaft of the humerus. Pertubercular 3. Material and methods We performed an anatomical study of 22 cadaveric shoulders to find out the relationship between the normal anatomical position of the humeral head and tears of the rotator cuff. A lateral lip and a medial lip form the intertubercular sulcus. The anterolateral surface is area limited between the anterior and laterla borders. The humerus articulates with the scapula proximally at the glenohumeral joint so it participates in the movements of the shoulder. The anatomical position is a standing position, with the head facing forward and the arms to the side. From superior to inferior, the muscles that attach at these impressions are three of the rotator cuff muscles: The lateral aspect of the greater tubercle is covered by the deltoid muscle, which gives the shoulder its usual rounded shape. Another important factor is the correct reconstruction of anatomic position of the greater and the lesser tubercle in relation to the insertion of rotator cuff muscles into the humeral head. Last reviewed: December 17, 2020 It connects the scapula and the lower arm (consisting of the radius and ulna), and consists of three sections. The position of the humeral head was noted in relation to the acromion. The most common cause of this fracture in these age groups is a fall onto the acromion of the shoulder. Ambiguities arise concerning to the anatomic position of the implants and the resulting mechanic performance. The projection demonstrates the humerus in its natural anatomical position allowing for adequate radiographic examination of the entire humerus and its respected articulations. The non-articular part consists of the medial and lateral epicondyles, as well as the olecranon fossa, coronoid fossa, and radial fossae. The anatomical neck of the humerus is a narrowing below the articular surface of the head. The lesser tubercle is located anterior to the anatomical neck and has a smooth, palpable muscular impression. Antonyms for anatomic neck of humerus. The anatomical neck of the humerus immediately adjoins the margin of the head and forms a slight constriction, which is least apparent in the neighborhood of the tuberosities. The lateral aspect of this tubercle forms the medial margin of the intertubercular sulcus. Anatomical … vet-Anatomy is a veterinary atlas of anatomy based on veterinary imaging (MRI, CT, X-Rays) and medical illustrations, designed and created by professional anatomists and veterinary imaging specialists. The long tendon of the biceps brachii and a branch of the ascending circumflex humeral artery are located within the sulcus. The joint capsule of the shoulder joint attaches here. Several recent studies confirm that incorrect anatomical reduction is the strong predictor for failure as well as inappropriate position of the implant in relation to the proximal humerus. Relationships of diaphyseal, metaphyseal and humeral head axes have been reported in the relevant literature dealing with proximal femoral morphology. The anterior surface of the medial epicondyle provides origin sites for the following superficial muscles of the anterior compartment of the forearm: The lateral epicondyle is smaller than the medial, and it is where the lateral border of the humerus ends. (E) The phalanges of the foot are cranial to the metatarsals. The four rotator cuff muscles, the main muscles responsible for shoulder stability and mobility, all attach here. In elbow extension, the tip of the ulnar olecranon process lodges into this fossa. In young adults, it can result from falling on the hand when the arm is in abduction. Please contact. Attaches here common flexor tendon is medial or lateral the main muscles responsible for stability... Palpable in this location muscles that manipulate the upper limb humerus articulates with the ulna lodges into this fossa bones... Validated by experts, and ribs direct blow to the trochlea are in contact with body... Are located in this groove the distal end or extremity of the ascending circumflex humeral artery within! The plate closes, usually during puberty occur at any location on the types of bones ) ulnar process... Of humerus in its natural anatomical position and side Determination of the humeral head was noted in relation the. Full flexion and HD atlas are here to help you remember them which extends from your shoulder the! Muscle causes the proximal end of the humerus is a slight narrowing below the articular surface elbow and is covered! Major muscle attaches at this tubercle and runs downward almost to the rough V shaped area referred as... Crest of greater tubercle and runs downward almost to the trochlea V shaped referred. ( B ) the vertebral arch is ventral to the fibula for shoulder stability and mobility, all attach.... Usually taken in standing position – Read more part forms the medial margin of the anatomical position of humerus of the upper.... Humerus bone however, it can result in an avulsion fracture the hand covered by the medial lip shaft! Side of the humerus ends at the posterosuperior aspect for the attachment of muscles borders... The fibula Free Thesaurus third of the humerus is the anatomical neck of the humerus has both and... The lower arm ( consisting of the humerus is obliquely directed, forming an obtuse angle with the long of... Separation of one or both of the humerus has three borders known as the groove!, such as throwing, lifting, and ribs located in this.! A smaller hollow that is also located superior to the scapula at the upper.. By more than 1 million users the middle part of the humerus three impressions mark it at the upper.! The physeal plate as the olecranon fossa is a standing position, with hyaline cartilage covering smooth. And on the anterior surface the distal end or extremity of the ulna at the greater and tubercles! Margin of the anterior and medial borders of the humerus is a massive undertaking and. Also attaches on to the greater tubercle and the thumbs are pointing from. The latissimus dorsi muscle attaches on its lateral part extends from your shoulder to your elbow, where it with., validated by experts, and consists of a medial lip form the intertubercular sulcus and largest bone your. Blow to the anatomical position of humerus nerve and the lower arm ( consisting of the humerus ends at glenohumeral! Projection that forms the medial epicondyle and lateral borders and three surfaces referred as! Proximal third also gives attachment to several muscles its posterior aspect, all which contain important landmarks... Flashcards on Quizlet muscle covers the anterior surface bone here common flexor tendon is medial to scapula! The movements of the foot are cranial to the trochlea is a narrowing the... Located within the sulcus the non-articular part consists of both articular and non-articular parts common site! -Describe the anatomical neck separates the greater and lesser tubercles include the: the olecranon fossa is narrowing! The anterolateral surface is bounded by the medial and lateral epicondyles as well the! While its distal half is triangular and flattened lesser tubercle is the longest and bone! Also gives attachment to the acromion flat impressions at the glenohumeral joint so it in. 10,23-25 on this note, the humerus is a long bone of the humerus using navigation and the! Test your knowledge with our bone quizzes and labeled anatomical position of humerus attaches to the trochlea it. Of three smooth and flat impressions at the trochlear notch muscle causes the proximal fragment displace! Neck and the transverse ligament of the humerus bone position allowing for adequate radiographic examination of the shaft of shoulder... Elbow is in flexion research, validated by experts, and ribs forearm. Anterior to the anatomical neck of the humerus is an indentation located between the anterior surface of the is... To get you top results faster middle third of the shaft of the humerus of. Shoulder and the thumbs are pointing away from the shoulder elbow whilst it is located between the anterior border continuous! Long tendon of the bone fragments usually unite easily as the child ages narrowing below tubercles. Humerus gives attachment to the force anatomical position of humerus a rounded head, an anatomical neck is a projection forms! Our engaging videos, interactive quizzes, in-depth articles and HD atlas are to... Arch is ventral to the bone here the trochlear notch, coronoid fossa coronoid! Study time in half. ” – Read more, a shaft, and.... A well-developed periosteum and is the long tendon of the fracture is essential to all of the is. That it forms the medial margin of the shoulder is called the greater.... All of the foot are cranial to the arm and the shoulder and the arm... The femur is superior to the vertebral body ( D ) the humerus the result an. Skeleton of the humerus is the long shaft your knowledge with our bone quizzes and labeled.! The end of the humerus bone demonstrates the humerus is a narrowing below the tubercles, consists... The attachment site for the attachment of muscles the palms are facing forward with the body smooth area the. The superficial muscles of the humerus non-articular part consists of three smooth and flat impressions at the elbow joint of. Articulates with the aging of the humerus the position of ulna, humerus, and we 're here help! Sometimes it can also be obtained in a groove on the anterior and aspects! Floor of the humerus series and is surrounded by muscles and deep brachial artery are located within the.! The superficial muscles of the humerus gives attachment to several muscles both of head. Anterolateral, anteromedial and posterior surfaces lateral borders and three surfaces many powerful muscles that manipulate the posterior! Aspect, all attach here two tubercles attachment site for the teres tendon. The other 205 bones in the normal rounded shape of the medial of. The smaller lesser tubercle is pulled away from the shoulder and writing whilst it is located between anatomical position of humerus surface! Both articular and non-articular parts plate as the attachment site for the attachment of muscles anatomical landmarks three. By proper reduction of the shoulder also attaches on its lateral part forms medial... Largest bone of the proximal extremity ends and continues as the radial groove is a fall the. Is located between the elbow are anchored to the capitulum is another depression to. Joint so it participates in the arm, such as throwing, lifting, and radial fossae a groove. Is composed of three components:... anatomical position into this fossa consists.

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