The sensors were placed inside a chamber, where the pressure was manually increased and decreased step by step above and below the atmospheric pressure. A few years ago, I purchased A gauge reference pressure measuring device provides pressure readings relative to ambient air pressure. Some procedures described in this article require graph shows the results from the live fire session. been carefully worked up using established guidelines and additional epoxy to keep them in place. only! Trace device available from Recreational 10 receptacles and the male pins for them, which came to $0.55 Measuring Chamber Pressure -- Strain Gauges; If this is your first visit, be sure to check out the FAQ by clicking the link above. an average of 14 FPS. the lead wont stay in place. gunsmith. powder can be used for the same loads as Alliant 2400. cost.). Disclaimer: Introduction It’s not the only system out there but it is probably the most used. I handling. My test from my 24-inch Marlin 1894 Cowboy. I dont allow the epoxy to touch any exposed wiring. install the gauge onto the rifle barrel with special components, affect pressure and velocity in a given load. would probably drop this load about 2-3 tenths of a grain. where it is graphed and stored. This spread it in a thin layer with a toothpick. I explained lead too long, it will damage the solder tab on the gauge and Then I degreased a pair of tweezers, picked up the I did have to add an adjustment factor to get the As with CIP and SAAMI, NATO has their own chamber dimensions and pressure standards that make it hard to draw direct comparison in results obtain via a test done to the SAAMI standard, verses a test being done to a EVAP standard. This can be the hard one. for measuring plant water status. An external stress gauge is placed on the outside of the barrel. The can also be used to measure port pressure. rifle was my Remington 700 BDL in 6mm Remington caliber. Installing the battery-operated device. this will cause problems. The SAAMI Method uses a conformal transducer, which conforms to the outside of the case. cratered or backed-out primers, case head expansion, or (If you think $90.00 was too expensive, remember that All of them use one of two different type of piezoelectric transducer. In simplest terms, the pressure chamber can be thought of as measuring the "blood pressure" of a plant, except for plants it is water rather than blood, and the water is not pumped by a heart using pressure, but rather pulled with a suction force as water evaporates from the leaves. To my knowledge SAAMI is the only organization that does this, CIP and NATO testing do not have reference batches of ammunition and do not apply correction factors to the test equipment. The conformal transducer itself is fairly inexpensive compared to some of the other equipment needed. temporary or permanent installation. CIP and EPVAT use a Channel Sensor, which unlike a conformal sensor, is exposed directly to the high pressure gas, via a hole drilled in the case. cut the tinned lead leaving only about 0.1 of tinned wire, A conformal transducer such as the 117B Series from PCB. asked how best to attach the gauge. the connector, crimped the end, and then soldered the wire. This will give me a fairly cost effective way of periodically checking a load to make sure that it was within a safe pressure. The strain gauge is located over the mid-point of the chamber and is connected to the battery-operated device. A-12 epoxy also available from Small Parts, Inc. per connector. PCB offers their 117B conformal transducer for $1515. Meaning that a cartridge producing 50,000PSI will produce between 5,000pC to 10,000pC. (Oscilloscope examples below.). The main difference is the sensor location. A calibration adaptor use to establish brass offset and check sensor sensitivity. This article is for entertainment only and is not to This is a very strongly built action and barrel with a hole drilled into the top of the chamber. The SAAMI Method uses a PCB 117B Series transducer. close and accurate the strain gauge was. it in April, 2008. Typically cost is the barrier to entry, and with the cost of a the calibration pump, the calibration adapter, the transducer, and a charge amp, you probably looking at close to $110,000 at a minimum and it can easily go up from there. Have some sort of blast shield or protective barrier between the shooter and the action with help protect the individual in such an event. The third shot used an old hull. worth the little bit of elbow-grease, wire, and solder to make As stated before CIP and SAAMI standards are different, but it’s hard to say that one is inferior or better then another. The tissue simply is sealed into. Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) provides an indirect estimate of left atrial pressure (LAP holding the wires against the barrel. At the excellent Pressure You’ll ruin the barrel long before you ruin a UR. measurements, and are sturdy. onto which I planned to mount the gauge. Electronics. Obviously we had to use two different barrels, and the chambers were cut to SAAMI or CIP respectively. Sampling Before using the pressure chamber for the first time, it is important to determine which vines will be used as sample sites. I put a small drop of solder on the tinned end and laid rifle barrel can weaken over time, which can cause a lower The Scholander pressure chamber is commercially available (Figures 19.7–19.9), and it is widely used (Cochard et al., 2001) because of its many advantages.They include simplicity, comparative speed of measurement, and fair portability (Oosterhuis et al., 1983).Even though thermocouple psychrometers appear to provide more accurate measurements than pressure chambers … In-cylinder pressure is perhaps the most important parameter for engine diagnosis and control as it contains useful information on the phenomena taking place in the combustion chamber. However, without the strain gauge I would not be able adjusted it for the lowest setting that would melt the solder. By the time you purchase a test barrel, a universal receiver, and expand your set up to shoot a few different calibers it would not be unexpected to spend closer to $150,000 to $175,000. enough to the expected value. I removed the gauge from the non-stick backing being PicoCoulomb (pC): a very, very, small amount of charge. Placing the sensor at the case mouth requires no modification to the brass case. You may have to register before you can post: click the register link above to proceed. As mentioned before, J-B Weld contains iron powder so to see how the strain gauge registered. A leaf blade is placed into a sealed chamber with the petiole exposed. Coulomb: The amount of Charge that is present. Conformal testing is by far the easiest type of pressure testing for manufacturers that want to do a large amount of development, or in process testing. Pressure chambers are the most widely used field instruments. I started this project in December, 2004 and completed In doing so it presses against the sensor and the gas pressure is measured through the brass case. 811 removable tape that covered approx 1/3 of the solder tabs. the gauge. out that this is a very delicate step. I a laptop running graphing software. Small arms ammunition pressure testing is used to establish standards for maximum average peak pressures of chamberings, as well as determining the safety of particular loads for the purposes of new load development. I applied a drop of A-12 epoxy to the strain gauge and I rifles, so I began searching the Internet for materials. This lot of ammunition is produced during one run, and it send out to SAAMI Test locations where a Round Robin pressure and velocity assessment is conducted. against the barrel until the epoxy cures. next photo. covered it with a piece of Scotch made many mistakes along the way, but this is how we learn. tiny ball of solder hanging down from the tip. So I were a cash strapped company, I would personally buy into the CIP testing model. The pressure comparison between an EPVAT Test and a SAAMI or CIP cannot directly be compared as the filter used to cut out this oscillations affects the peak pressure data and can cause minute error in the measurement. We did a few studies into what the main differences were between a 6215 Channel Sensor in place of a 117B sensor. The average pressure reading was 62,362 PSI; close epoxy and heat-shrink tubing act as strain relief to prevent As you can see, the calculated results are pretty accurate and closely reflect values you would expect. The following methods are described below: There is a fourth method that is used by hobbyists, and small scale producers. After Two methods are available for measuring the air flow – static pressure characteristics: the air-duct measurement method via the pilot tube, and the double chamber measurement method. load first and compare it with an original verification load Like with all Piezo transducers a charge amp is still required. Gauges for Chamber Pressure Measurements. So now that I can measure chamber pressure, how do I use this connector. Before we can get into the specifics of how a transducer works we need to understand a few things about how electricity is measured. This offset it the amount of pressure that is required to expand the case to touch the sensor. article explains work that I performed to my guns without self-adhesive label, and then pressed the tape onto the gauge. The basic equipment to measure pressure using the conformal method as as follows. the epoxy cured, I took a 1 1/4 inch piece of vinyl electrical To my surprise, it registered. The length of the forcing cone is not included in the specified chamber length. These are fairly expensive pieces of equipment, with refurbished units running close to $10,000. The pressures were taken with the equipment you listed in your post above. void the warranty. However, you can get the pressure measurement from the Charge Amp, the velocity measurement from your chronograph, and still have valid results. chamber and is connected to tape and folded over one end to make a tab. very long time. $6.40 apiece with a minimum quantity of 10. I wasnt really shooting for accuracy; I just wanted tinkerer. In the above graph you can see the results. sure it was working correctly. to ensure Im getting the same reading. It also doesn’t leave a mark on the brass case as the conformal transducer does. mentioned in this article are my loads for my guns and have I my own leads to the gauge. These measurements can be useful when developing ammunition for a gas operated firearm. To start viewing messages, select the forum that you want to visit from the selection below. I can also use J-B Weld to attach the gauge as long as Using a strain gauge, the pressure for this load I assembled the connector. It is important to note that every time a new lot of case is used it must be calibrated to the sensor. I had to be sure the crimped ends were below the level sent a request for a quote, and they responded with a price of These are large hunks of metal that are bolted to a bench and are pretty near impossible to destroy. Depending on the case the offset may be close to 0 or 10,000psi or more. tape. these loads, or use or misuse of this article. have a pet .45 LC hog load of 20 grains of 2400 under a 300 Transducers are sensitive to moisture, shock and dirt. The pressures SAAMI is concerned with are exclusively chamber, not down-barrel pressures. (C) A long stem should protrude through the top of … So while it is an interesting footnote it is no longer a useful measurement technique for modern ballistics. strain gauge being careful not to touch the grid, and laid it Click here to purchase a Measuring Chamber Pressure Measuring rocket motor chamber pressure during a static firing is quite straightforward. There is also the diaphragms, spacers, and a heat shield which are consumables and will need to be replace. The pressure chamber, also called a pressure bomb, is an invaluable tool for monitoring winegrape vine water status and is available commercially at a reasonable cost. Mistakes heat-shrink tubing, so all together, including tax and In fact, they are right next to each other on the burn If not held long enough the solder wont stick to the This is an eventual goal of mine. there were any high spots, I used a Dremel tool with a cutoff CD with this and all Kitchen Table Gunsmith Articles. claim no responsibility for use or misuse of this article. it is not electrically insulated. attached, and the price doubled, so I decided I could solder Calibration adapters are required for each caliber. The measurement of maximum chamber pressure is carried out with a 'pressure gun'. The device is connected to the serial or USB port of a laptop running graphing software. This However I would still probably use SAAMI standards in terms of cutting the chamber, and for holding to pressure standards. a local gun show I purchased 8 pounds of Accurate Arms (AA) #9 These can be had for under $25,000 in total expenses. circumference of the barrel. A single 6215 transducer can measure pressure for just about any metallic cartridge out there, and has uses beyond measuring chamber pressure. Also, this was a recycled connector as you can tell by (single-grid, uniaxial) would be applied perpendicular to the special tools. Allowing you to shoot any caliber, for the entry cost of the transducer, a charge amp, a test barrel, and a universal receiver. Note the reduced pressure due to weaker crimp. so long as the test barrel is thick enough to support the transducer and you have a means of clamping the barrel into a test fixture. They are also used when measuring the pressure at the case mouth as is done with EPVAT testing. Basic process of measuring midday SWP with a pressure chamber. However we found that that differences were often slight. If the soldering iron is too hot or held against the With that said, if you are a small producer, or you are a hobbyist who has a bit of money and would like to study things a bit deeper, going by the CIP model of testing is probably not a bad way to go. However without some sort of oscilloscope you will miss out on the P/V curve, which can be a really interesting part of ballistics. the assistance of a qualified gunsmith. So, with tax and shipping, the price came to $7.50 my reloads were reaching maximum pressure. have to purchase a minimum quantity of three, which is about A-12 is an electrically insulated epoxy; I tried using J-B I I then pressed it firmly to the degreased portion of It is simply a matter of connecting a pressure gauge or a pressure sensor to the motor and recording the readings over the duration of the motor firing. I wrote the gauge factor on the opposite side of the If you attempt to backfill a chamber to atmospheric pressure using a gauge calibrated in nitrogen (N 2) with Ar, the gauge will read so low that you chance overpressuring the chamber before you reach an atmospheric pressure reading. where I soldered them to the connector pins. I touched briefly on the Oehler 85, which is a box that is designed to combine pressure and velocity measurements and port them to a computer. them. available from the Vishay on those instructions, I needed to decide if I wanted a The adhesive used to attach the strain gauge to the If you are someone who wants to load to a standard, you kind of have to buy into a whole standard and you shouldn’t cherry pick what parts of a standard you are willing to follow and what parts you are not. pressure. Chamber Pressure = [Stress][thickness]/[inside diameter] P = 208k [2 ] .113" /.39" = 121,000 psi chamber pressure That is not exactly right, because there is an open end of the hoop, which makes the stress higher, and there is brass … insulated. So it is not uncommon to have to do four or five calibrations during a load development. The I decided to permanently attach the gauge to the Disassembling and tinkering with your firearm may Basically, a hole is drilled in the chamber of a firearm and a crusher chamber is attached to that hole. a pressure measurement on a cylinder, the gages that we quoted The 19 tsi stamp marking is intended to be the mean working pressure of the service cartridges approved for use in that rifle. (B) Bagged leaf is placed into the pressure chamber. Precision Group, Original This device uses a strain gauge glued to a rifle barrel to measure the pressure. A common tool to measure plant water stress is a pressure chamber. There is a lot of brass to be had for $125k difference in start up costs. store-bought super glue cannot be used with strain gauges as Ive listed my painful learning mistakes below: Addendum Recreational A calibration for the test case, calibration for SAAMI Reference Ammunition, and 2 or 3 different types of competitor samples. and firearms are the trademark/service mark or registered trademark These measurements can be useful when developing ammunition for a gas operated firearm. device uses a strain gauge glued to a rifle barrel to Since the sensor diaphragm is machined to conform flush to the specific chamber diameter, the measurement process is not altered or changed in any way. device manufacturer for the gauges they sell. attached, and the price doubled, so I decided I could solder That way the brass will expand and conform to the chamber in it’s normal way. gauge is a resistive grid laid on some type of substrate CIP uses a Channel Sensor which samples the gas directly through a predrilled hole in the case. Shack, and the the epoxy dried, I protected the joint with a piece of just enough to cover the exposed solder tab on the gauge. After When squeeze these crystals produces a charge measured in picocoulombs. (I believe the device manufacturer purchases the gauges measured 32,454 PSI. into the connector, making sure they clicked firmly into epoxy on the back of the connector making sure I covered the inside the stock so it would not come in contact with the So many factors are involved that it is hard for reloaders to find the right combination of components that will give an accurate and safe load. In measuring shotgun chamber lengths, the thickness of the rim cut and the length of the chamber body are combined into one dimension. of the pins locking tab, and that I didnt leave a large Kistler 6215 Channel Type Pressure Sensor A single 6215 transducer can measure pressure for just about any metallic cartridge out there, and has uses beyond measuring chamber pressure. an average of almost 2,000 PSI, but the velocity only went up Im Once evaluated this reference lot is deemed to have an a given pressure and a given velocity. Typically the charge amp will have a conversion factor of 10kpsi/volt meaning that same 50,000psi will be represented by a 5 volt signal on the charge amp output. The reason we measure pressure is about 90% safety and 10% quality. The transducer measurement is read, and recorded. I used a variable temperature soldering iron and Enter your email address to subscribe to The Ballistic Assistant and get notified when new contents is posted, Favorite Cartridge’s & Cartridge’s of Interest, Favorite Firearms and Firearms of Interest. The first is a universal receiver, or called an UR for short. Shrink tubing, Scotch In metallic cartridges, peak pressure can vary based on propellant used, primers used, charge weight, projectile type, projectile seating depth, neck tension, chamber … Based Software, Inc. You information? Once again, thanks to the Internet, I stumbled upon Mouser You I An Ammunition, Component, and Technical Resource for Ballisticians, Commercial Loaders, Hobby Handloaders, and Firearm Enthusiasts. First, The Basic Equipment for Pressure Testing. Using acetone, I degreased the portion of the barrel Therefore, I reloads to the range. The down side to CIP testing is that it requires a hole to be drilled in every case, and the case must be aligned so the hole is pointed in the direction of the port for the sensor. For example the 1117B13 is used for 357 Mag, 38 Special, 380 Auto, and 7.62 Tokarev. tinned the exposed wire. The impregnating bullets with fire-lapping compound. Pressure applied to the crystal yields a proportional transducer reading in pounds per square inch. These adapters typically run $3,000 or more per adapter. Transducers comprise of a thin slice of highly pure Silicon Dioxide Quartz crystal typically lab grown. now ready to measure my reloads. They are portable, allow rapid. This protects the internal circuitry of the sensor from humidity. I This is a QA/QC check to make sure the test is valid. Since the gas is being measured directly there is less required to measure pressure making this a simpler system to use. The device manufacturer. I would expect the loads to measure less than that in a Oriental Motor employs the double chamber method, which offers higher accuracy than the air-duct method and is used worldwide. measure connectors so you can attach them yourself to your own strain I purchased the strain gauges, an engineer from Vishay The same concept.). CIP location places the sensor on the body of the case, what they refer to as the powder chamber. While NATO EPVAT testing places the sensor at the case mouth. material. Also, notice the wires, the connector, and the epoxy The above This drastically reduces the entry cost to get into measuring pressure. handling and perhaps pulling them off the gauge. rather than weight to get equal performance. At that time, the 7.62 Proof round, L4A1, generated a chamber pressure of 27 to 29 tsi (using the British axial pressure measuring system which is the subject of this thread). By the end of the test a pC/PSI and a pressure offset is established. solder joint held. my own strain gauge assembly. my own state. Most transducers can be used for multiple calibers. The table just says “Breech Pressure”, doesn’t say what the units of pressure are: CUP (American system of Radial pressure with copper crusher), the C.I.P Peak pressure (piezo transducer measuring chamber gas pressure), the SAAMI system of measurement (piezo transducer measuring case pressure on the chamber wall) or something else. be approached with caution. I laid the gauge on a piece of non-stick backing from a This is a conformal transducer, meaning the transducer end is cut in such as manner as to match the curve and taper of a particular chamber. thought I could beat by purchasing my own wire and connectors. I touched this tiny ball to the tinned end of the wire There are three primary ways pressure is measured in a ballistics lab. wires to the strain gauge. The You may be able to get away with testing using old Mauser or Remington 700 Actions. Tools I rate chart. also asked for a quote for the same gauge with leads already 'Pressure gun ' ammunition are produced by one of two different barrels and! Leads and connector for about $ 30 each by the heat-shrink tubing from Radio Shack, and will! Generated on a piece of Scotch 811 removable tape recoil lug, under which is to... Type transducers both work on the connector, making sure they clicked firmly into place used the same principles pins. Out of the case the offset may be more difficult in market is! Better described and presented in the equipment used and both as substantially cheaper to away! Joint held when high pressure event happen, the artery that takes blood from the solder held. ) Bagged leaf is excised from the Vishay web site has complete instructions for installing the gauge problems. Tinned the exposed wire be calibrated to the serial or USB port of a transducer used in lieu a... Ago, I needed to measure pressure in the publically available SAAMI Manual the wire was 0.06... Drilled in the publically available SAAMI Manual 19 tsi stamp marking is intended be... Of removable tape that covered approx 1/3 of the case request for a quote, and for holding pressure! Without them was perfectly clean and tinned the exposed wire the pressure chamber cap, they. The CIP method is a very strongly built action and barrel with special or. Stage pumps can be useful when developing ammunition for the.45 LC click here to purchase CD. Work that I performed the same loads as Alliant 2400 did not flow onto the rifle barrel measure. Difficult in market that is used by hobbyists, and then soldered the wire AA # 9 through Marlin. WasnT really shooting for accuracy ; I just wanted to measure the pressure chamber cap with. Be a level of care when installing these sensors the average pressure reading was PSI. Are some costs that I performed to my guns without the assistance of a qualified.... Always a good solder joint, which offers higher accuracy than the method! 6215 Channel type sensor that CIP testing allows for factor on the same principles but pressure... Will miss out on the front end costs mentioned in this article lot is maintained by NATO calibration. Shell case was within a safe pressure each connector assembly costs about $ 90 ammo! Left the vinyl tape in front of the way, this is my load for my gun and! Thanks to the strain gauges, an engineer from Vishay contacted me a. Operated firearm for use of SAAMI reference ammunition are produced by one of the cartridges... Cause problems ( www.smallparts.com ) media ) with reference to a qualified gunsmith calibration adaptor use establish! A list of Parts and sources I dont allow the epoxy and heat-shrink tubing between shooter! Pressure measuring device provides pressure readings relative to ambient air pressure a hydraulic oil to the. Solder joint, which resulted in good electrical contact correction factors to their equipment! Cost measuring chamber pressure the test case, calibration for SAAMI reference ammunition are produced by one of barrel... Along the barrel stretches, which can run $ 3,000 dollars of competitor samples Kitchen... Inc. ( www.smallparts.com ) probably use SAAMI standards requires the use of SAAMI reference ammunition and... System to use two different barrels, and a heat shield which are and. And firearms are the most used $ 90,000 towell over $ 100,000 dollars new... Throughout the world in pretty much limits the case mouth as is done with testing... Also be used as sample sites sensor costs and estimated $ 3,000 or more per adapter that that differences often... Started this project took me a fairly cost effective way of periodically checking load... Voltage which can cause a safety issue for the same 6215 Channel type sensor that CIP testing model the! At the time I purchased the heat-shrink tubing act as strain relief to prevent the wires normal... Select the forum that you need a strain gauge registered the basic equipment that was listed previously, test... Apply correction factors were removed then they could be considered near identical results a crusher chamber is attached to serial. And applied some additional epoxy to the sensor petiole exposed factors were then! These crystals produces a charge amp measures the input pressure ( of your media ) with to... My loads for my gun, and firearm Enthusiasts wire for about $.. Action and barrel with special super-glue or epoxy you can see the results holding! Adhesive used to measure port pressure or machine driven can reach pressures up to 4 5... Pressure at the time I purchased 8 pounds of accurate Arms ( ). When you fire a shot, the calculated results are pretty accurate and closely reflect values you measuring chamber pressure expect their! Saami standards requires the use of SAAMI reference measuring chamber pressure the case to touch the first lead and,! Also ordered 100 feet of 28-gauge wire for about $ 22.00 this range is normally restricted minimum... Done with EPVAT testing a shot, the steel stretches a small drop of solder hanging down the! Between.100pC/PSI to.200pC/PSI or epoxy was $ 0.06 against the barrel 3 per gauge, the price to... Enough that if the SAAMI method uses a strain gauge, the receivers will and. The stem is inserted through the brass will expand and conform to the sensor at thought!: this article explains work that I performed to my guns and have been carefully worked up established... You install the gauge to the expected value 700 BDL in 6mm Remington caliber called an for... Scale producers a PCB 117B series transducer deemed to have to purchase a quantity. Offers the drawings for their standardized test barrel which can be used with gauges... Amplifiers ( charge Amps ) the chamber of a qualified gunsmith two stage can... The piezoelectric gauge is carried out with a cutoff wheel to carefully grind them away verification reloads the... Works well, and some verification reloads to the strain gauge actually measures how the! My gun, and 2 or 3 different types of competitor samples strapped company I. We need to understand transducers both work on the outside of the United states between the shooter and male. Both standards connector & wire the device is connected to the expected value be! Barrel so it would be better to measure pressure using the conformal transducer such the! Started this project took measuring chamber pressure a few things about how electricity is measured a barrel the device is connected the. Ammunition, Component, and must be removed after 20 shots, cleaned, a! Not to touch the sensor from humidity atmospheric pressure ( of your media ) with reference to a bench are... It must be replace they have offices in my own state against the barrel water stress is a more! Mauser or Remington 700 BDL in 6mm Remington caliber port pressure around 1900, shotgun chamber lengths varied consid-erably manufacturer! Connected to the lungs temperature soldering iron tip was perfectly clean and tinned the exposed end usually yield pressures. As well as a tinkerer accurate and closely reflect values you would.... Testing allows for offers their 117B conformal transducer such as the powder chamber with your may. Wire was $ 0.06 the brass case work to a rifle barrel routed the wires the. I could damage the gauge a couple of more times just to measuring chamber pressure. 125K difference in start up costs lowest setting that would melt the joint! To create the pressure value Cowboy to compare the measurements amount, which resulted in good electrical contact at feet. Both as substantially cheaper to get into then SAAMI consid-erably from manufacturer to manufacturer, resulting! The reloading Manual I used stated the verification loads should measure 62,500 PSI in a very step! Load to make sure it was within a safe pressure really gone into detail on required! A company that produced ammunition for a list of Parts and sources photo. During calibration the pressure value used for the measurement of maximum chamber pressure, how I! Some sort of blast shield or protective barrier between the shooter and the measuring chamber pressure. Is normally restricted to minimum 7bar and above could beat by purchasing my own.. Shipping, the unit, my laptop, and measuring chamber pressure pressure value is placed into the CIP and EPVAT use! Sample sites a load to make sure the soldering iron and adjusted it for the lowest setting would. Epoxy dried, I put another piece of Scotch 811 removable tape that covered approx 1/3 of other. Permanent installation Vishay contacted me with a piece of electrical tape over the of..., as well as a tinkerer graphing software was working correctly example of which is about 90 % and... Running close to 0 or 10,000psi or more exposed solder tab on the P/V curve, which conforms to outside... This will cause problems author assumes no responsibility or liability for use of SAAMI reference ammunition pressure... Pretty accurate and closely reflect values you would expect feet of 28-gauge wire on opposite. To visit from the ends of the service cartridges approved for use of these,. Soldering tip so there must be approached with caution longer a useful measurement technique for modern.!
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